PDF | Considering suitability of climatic conditions and economic aspects in Konkan region of Maharashtra, cultivation of Calocybe indica was. This is the first indigenous mushroom to be commercialized in the country. Mushrooms white in color, gills and stalks white. Mushrooms large with long, thick. Cultivation of Milky mushroom (Calocybe indica) Application / Use: Can be grown indoors on pasteurized paddy straw Input Needed: Paddy straw and casing.
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APK2 is provided in this review. However, no commercial cultivation was made until Krishnamoorthy rediscovered the fungus from Tamil Nadu, India and standardized the commercial production techniques for the first time in the world.
A comprehensive and critical review on physiological and nutritional requirements viz. Innovative and inexpensive methods developed to commercially cultivate milky white mushrooms on different lignocellulosic biomass is also described in this review. The composition profiles of milky white mushroom, its mineral contents and non-enzymatic antioxidants are provided in comparison with button mushroom Agaricus bisporus and oyster mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus.
Antioxidant assay results using methanol extract of milky white mushroom has been provided along with the information about the compounds that are responsible for flavor profile both in fresh and dry mushrooms.
Milky white mushroom extracts are known to have anti-hyperglycemic effect and anti-lipid peroxidation effect. The advantage of growing at elevated temperature creates newer avenues to explore milky white mushroom cultivation economically around the world, especially, in humid tropical and sub-tropical zones. Because of its incomparable productivity caloccybe shelf life to any other cultivated mushrooms in the world, milky white mushroom could play an important role in satisfying the growing market demands for edible mushrooms indjca the near future.
The world population is currently 7 billion and it is increasing at a faster rate. By the year the global population is expected to reach 9 billion and during it could be 20 billion [ 1 ]. Shortage of food and diminishing quality of human health will be growing concerns because of the population increase and urbanization, with a concomitant reduction in arable land. Converting lignocellulosic agricultural and forest residues into protein-rich mushrooms is calocybbe of the most economically viable and sustainable biotechnology processes to address world food demand, especially protein demand [ 2 ].
Consumption of edible fungi to fulfill human nutritional needs has been a common denominator in the history of mankind [ 34 ]. Milky white Calocybe indica var. APK2 is one of such mushroom varieties Fig.
Over a decade, commercial production of this mushroom variety has assumed greater impetus in India, uplifting rural livelihood [ 6 ]. For several decades, people from West Bengal Eastern Indian State have collected these mushrooms and sold in local markets.
Its milky white color and robust nature are appealing idnica consumers Fig.
Calocybe indica – Wikipedia
In nature, milky white mushrooms are seen grown on humus rich soil in agricultural fields or along the roadside in tropical and subtropical parts of India, especially in the plains of Tamil Nadu South Indian State and in Rajasthan located in the western edge of India [ 8 ]. These mushrooms grow every year between the months of May and August, which normally coincides with sufficient showers after a prolonged dry spell.
Detailed studies on preferential physiological and cultural requirements viz. Nlight and substrate requirement for growing C.
Indica were reported [ 789 ]. Since this mushrooms is morphologically similar to Agaricus bisporus button mushroomit has been quite popular in southern Indian states and slowly getting popular in other countries China, Malaysia, and Singapore.
Small scale mushroom growers prefer to grow this tropical mushroom due to the following reasons: Methods have been developed to cultivate this mushroom on commercial scale since late nineties [ 6 ].
This review mainly focuses on the various aspects of milky white mushroom cultivation viz. In general, mycelia growth profile and sporophore production of any cultivated mushroom is a function of time, temperature, pH, available C: N ratio, light, CO 2 and O 2 requirements during morphogenesis. Considerable attention has been given by various authors to understanding the optimal physiological and culture requirements of C. The majority of the results indicate that the time required for maximum mycelia growth in culture media like potato dextrose agar or malt extract agar is 8 to 10 days.
The pH requirement has been reported to have a wide optimal range, between 5. Cumulative results on growing mycelia are summarized in Table 1. As far as the mycelia production in liquid broth is concerned, potato dextrose broth yielded the maximum of 0. Among the various water soluble carbon sources studied, including glucose, starch, sucrose, lactose, xylose, fructose and maltose, xylose gave the best results 0. Similarly, among the different nitrogen sources tested NaNO 3Urea, NH 4 2 SO 4yeast extract, peptone, NH 4 Clyeast extract was the most beneficial to mycelial growth when combined with xylose 0.
The optimum nitrogen concentration with yeast extract as nitrogen source was found to be 2. N ratio that favored the maximum growth was found to be Light intensity, duration valocybe wavelength are the important components of sporophore initiation.
This effect is known as tropic effect. It has long been known that low light intensity, or absence of light, may result in sporophores of curious shape, often with elongated stripes and poor pileus development. Purkayastha and Chandra [ 12 ] reported that cultures of C. But, when exposed to diffused light, elongation of stipe to a considerable extent occurred.
Low light intensity of lux and below favored spawn run. But, increased mushroom yield was obtained only at higher light intensity of about 1, lux g per bed containing g of paddy straw. According to the calcybe of light, the size of the mushroom also varied. At higher light intensity, the stipe length was significantly reduced, whereas pileus width increased substantially. Six synthetic carbon sources namely, glucose controlstarch, sucrose, lactose, xylose, fructose were used.
Their equivalent quantities were replaced with glucose of the Maltova broth glucose, Four different nitrogen sources replaced sodium nitrate control of maltova broth on the basis of equivalent quantities.
Six concentrations of yeast extract YE and sodium nitrate best N sourcesi. Sorghum or wheat grains were found to be the best substrates for C. After 15 to 20 days of incubation, complete colonization of the substrate by the mushroom mycelia should be observed, meaning that they can be used for culture bed inoculation [ 1516 ]. The age of spawn is an important factor that influences the flushing pattern and yield of milky white mushroom.
Prolonged storage of spawn reduced the productivity and total yield. Any further increase in the inoculum showed only marginal improvements in mushroom yield. Layer spawning reduced the colonization time in the substrate 15 days as compared to through spawning more than 20 days. A variety of substrates were calcoybe for the cultivation of C. These authors tried to induce fruit bodies in a number of growth media, including soil-sand, soil-sand-maize meal and soil-sandpulse powder.
Later attempts were made to develop suitable, low cost synthetic compost for the production of more fruit bodies. Byit had become possible to grow C. This substrate was filled in trays and seeded with spawn.
Doshi and his group evaluated wheat straw, maize stalks, sorghum stalks, maize meal, rice meal, sorghum meal, and wheat bran as basal substrates for the production of C. The results indicated that wheat straw was the best substrate for fruit body production.
Addition of different supplements to the substrate also influences the spawn run, days for pinning, number of pinhead initiation, flushing pattern and overall mushroom yield. Krishnamoorthy [ 22 ] concluded that substrates like paddy straw and sorghum stalks were colonized more quickly by the milky white mushroom fungus compared to black gram hay, soybean hay, maize stalks and finger millet straw [ 6 ].
The study also indicated that substrates infica coconut coir pith compost, paddy straw compost and saw dust did not favor the growth of C. Interestingly, the average weight claocybe individual sporophores spore-producing hyphae, which may be loosely arranged was always found to be high when the beds were supplemented with black gram husk, red gram husk and neem cake.
While, minimum weight of individual mushrooms was recorded in the sporophores harvested from beds that were supplemented with wheat idica. In a separate study, Kumar et al. More promisingly, supplements like soybean and cotton seed cake gave the highest absolute mushroom yields Currently, the milky white mushroom farming is done manually.
The cultivation process is labor intensive imdica fairly energy demanding. The crop production process involves six different steps viz. At this stage, steam-treated casing soil is applied on half-cut beds to a depth of 1. Sufficient natural light should be made available inside the cropping room.
Pin heads will appear on the casing surface within a week and the mushrooms attain harvesting maturity in a couple of days. Several cases of less organized cultivation in thatched houses or under tarpaulin roofs surrounded by brick walls have also been reported calocjbe limited success [ 29 ].
These sheds are not properly insulated and the growth requirements, including temperature and relative humidity, could fluctuate depending on the external environment.
A one-year study on the yield of milky white mushrooms in such sheds, using rice straw as substrate, showed the best performance during the months of May and June peak summer season in South India [ 27 ]. Other hindrances for milky mushroom production include over-matured spawn, insect infestations, contaminant fungi and bacteria due to unhygienic conditions and poor farm maintenance.
Casing is an important agronomic practice in the cultivation of any humicolous mushroom that grow on soil and milky white mushroom is not an exception. Casing triggers off the change from vegetative to reproductive phase. Compact casing interfaces impede the diffusion of harmful metabolic gases on mushroom bed surface. Thus accumulation of high concentrations of carbon dioxide in the soil during fructification usually results in yield depression [ 30 ].
Smerdon defined clearly the qualities of casing soil and said that it should have a high water holding capacity, besides retaining a good air space ratio to facilitate gaseous exchange [ 31 ]. They also concluded that the pH of such soil must be neutral to alkaline.
Casing was found to be an absolute requirement for proper fructification in C. Purkayastha [ 8 ] used loamy soil or garden soil and sand 1: In sandy soil and farm yard manure, the fungus took more than 10 days for the production of pinheads and attained harvesting maturity after In clay loam soil and peat, the buttons appeared almost 2 days earlier when compared to all other casing media tried.
Interestingly, the clay loam soil had the quality to absorb moisture quickly and release it slowly. In this soil, less water was needed to maintain the required moisture level and a delay in spraying did not lead to the total drying of bed surface.
Using vermin-compost as casing substrate was also reported with limited success. In addition to its composition, pH, EC, water holding capacity, porosity and bulk density of casing mixture are some of the important factors to be considered while selecting substrates for casing [ 34 ]. Several growth regulators like indole acetic acid, indolebutryic acid, gibberllic acid GAand kinetin were tested for their effect on the sporophore size and yield of milky white mushroom [ 35 ].
The results clearly indicated that GA at 40 ppm increased the yield of sporophores Table 2.